Oncology in India
Oncology is a special branch of medicine that deals with the study and treatment of cancer. The term oncology originates from the Greek word onkos meaning bulk or tumor.Oncology mainly deals with the diagnosis of cancer, therapy which includes surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and others.
List of Oncology in India
Oncology Treatment in India
Oncology is a special branch of medicine that deals with the study and treatment of cancer. The term oncology originates from the Greek word onkos meaning bulk or tumor.
Oncology mainly deals with the diagnosis of cancer, therapy which includes surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and others.
The most significant diagnostic tool used in the study of oncology is medical history. It includes specific symptoms experienced by the patient and nature of complaint. Other diagnostic tools are
Biopsy – a medical test which involves removal of cells or tissues from possible area of malignancy for microscopic examination
Endoscopy – This involves internal examination of the patient’s body by inserting a small scope to view the lesion.
X-Ray, CT scan, Ultrasound – These are radiological techniques used to examine the patient.
Blood Tests – Pathological examination like blood tests is a common technique to diagnose cancer.
Scintigraphy, Positron emission tomography – These are methods of nuclear medicine used to diagnose cancer.
Treatment of cancer depends on specific cases and the nature and extent of malignancy of the tumor. The most common methods of treatment are
Surgery – If the case permits, surgery or removal of the malignant portion of the body is removed.
Chemotherapy – It is the use of chemical substances to treat the disease. Often cytotoxic drugs are used for chemotherapy.
Radiotherapy – Ionizing radiation is used as a medical technique to cure and control the growth of malignant cells.
Hormone Manipulation – is mainly used in cases of breast and prostrate cancer
Vaccine – It is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to the disease.
To treat social problems like neglect and alienation, patients suffering from cancer or cured from cancer need palliative care. Physical problems that are associated with the treatment of cancer are pain, nausea, anorexia, fatigue and immobility.
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a technique to cure the patient by transferring the stem cells (blood-forming cells) from a genetically-similar donor to the patient’s body. These procedures are most effective for the treatment of certain blood cancers.
Abdominoperineal resection is a surgical method that is performed to remove the rectum, anus, and the sigmoid colon. This is an elective procedure and it is more often used to treat rectal cancer or anal cancer, or in the case of any injuries to the rectum.
Lymphoma is cancer that starts in the white blood cells. An autologous bone marrow transplant uses a healthy stem cell from the patient’s own body to replace the damaged stem cell. It is a technique used to treat the cancer of the lymphatic system. In this technique, the healthy stem cells are removed before undergoing chemotherapy and are frozen. After the high-dose chemotherapy, either with or without radiation therapy, the stem cells are then transplanted back into the body.
Multiple Myeloma is when the plasma cell becomes cancerous and grows out of control. The abnormal plasma cell makes an abnormal protein. Stem cell transplant commonly uses in the treatment of multiple myeloma. In the Bone marrow transplant Autologous, the healthy stem cell obtained from the bone marrow of the patient. After having a high dose of chemotherapy, the stored stem cell placed back into the patient’s body for the formation of the new stem cell.
Brachytherapy is a form of radiotherapy in which the radioactive source with a high radiation dose is placed inside or next to the treatment area. It is an advanced cancer treatment in which cancer cells damages and slow down or stops the ability of cancer cells to divide and grow. Brachytherapy is used for effective treatment of cervical, prostate, breast, esophageal, and skin cancer. It is also used to treat the tumors in many other body spots.
Brain cancer is the consequence of the abnormal growth of the cells in the brain. The treatment of brain cancer mainly depends on the factors like patient’s age and general health condition, size, location, type and stage of cancer. The schedule of treatment differs for children and adults. The most widely used treatments are surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. In a few cases, more than one can be used for the treatment
Breast cancer starts when the mutation takes place in the breast which lets the cells divide and multiply in an uncontrolled way. Cancer develops in the lobules or ducts which form a lump or tumor in the breast. The treatment for breast cancer depends on so many things, the doctor needs to determine the cancer size, stage, and grade. Surgery is the main treatment of breast cancer. While some of the additional treatments are chemotherapy, hormone therapy, radiation therapy, and targeted therapy.
Cervical cancer begins in the cervix when the mutation in the cell’s DNA takes place. The treatment for cervical cancer is based on the stage of cancer. The treatment of cervical cancer is of many types which include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy. Chemotherapy is recommended for the early stage of cervical cancer. Brachytherapy is a form of radiotherapy which is also used in the treatment of cervical cancer.
Chemotherapy is a type of cancer treatment and mostly it involves a combination of anti-cancer drugs. It is given with the curative intent or it may aim to reduce the symptoms. Chemotherapy slows down or stops cancer growth by destroying the cancer cells. Mostly, chemotherapy is used with the surgery or radiation therapy or sometimes both.
Colorectal cancer is cancer that starts in the rectum or the colon. It is mostly located at the lower end of the digestive tract. It is more often known as rectal cancer or colon cancer. The treatment options vary with the stage of colorectal cancer which includes surgery, immunotherapy, proton beam therapy, palliative care, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.
Hemi colectomy is a surgical procedure to remove one side of the colon and left hemicolectomy involves the removal of the left side of the colon. Mostly laparoscopy is performed in the case of colon cancer or for certain non-cancerous conditions such as diverticular disease.
Right, Hemicolectomy is a surgical procedure to remove the right side of the colon and attach the intestinal portion with the leftover part of the colon. In the case of malignant neoplasm of the right colon, the colectomy involves removing the cecum, the ascending colon, the hepatic flexure, the first third of the transverse colon, and part of the terminal ileum, along with lymph node.
Leukemia is a cancer of blood cells that starts in the blood-forming tissue mainly in the bone marrow. It is caused by the rise of white blood cells. White blood cells crowd out the red blood cells and platelets. The white blood cells help in fighting the infection but their extra number starts causing the body. Leukemia can be treated with standard treatment methods. The most used treatment methods for leukemia are chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, biological therapy, and stem cell transplantation.
Lung cancer is a malignant lung tumor that is characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lungs. It is also called as lung carcinoma. It is categorized into two parts that are small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and mom-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Lung cancer can be seen from chest radiographs and computer tomography (CT). The diagnosis is confirmed by the biopsy which is usually done with the help of bronchoscopy. The common treatments for lung cancer include medications, surgery, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, radiation (PDT) or a combination of these treatments.
Mastectomy is a way to treat breast cancer by the surgical procedure that involves the removal of one or both the breasts and sometimes nearby tissues. In the past, radical mastectomy was performed as a treatment of breast cancer in which the whole breast was removed with the lymph nodes in the underarm and some chest muscles also. But surgical breakthroughs have given women more options than ever before. Now, less invasive breast-conserving treatments are also available for women.
Oral cancer is cancer that develops in the tissues of the mouth and throat. It also includes the cancer of lips, cheeks, tongue, and floor of the mouth, and sinuses. Oral cancer is often discovered after they have spread to the lymph nodes of the neck. It can be life-threatening if not diagnosed and cured in its early stages. Oral cancer can be treated by performing the surgery for the removal of the cancerous growth, followed by radiation and chemotherapy for the removal of remaining cancer cells.
Ovarian cancer is when the abnormal cells in the ovary start to multiply and form a tumor. If it left untreated, the tumor spreads to the other parts of the body. Ovarian cancer has no symptoms so it is difficult to detect it at an early stage. It can go undetected until it spread within the pelvis and stomach. The treatment depends on how far cancer has spread and options for the cure of ovarian cancer include surgery, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, targeted therapy, and radiation therapy. The treatment is more likely to include a combination of two or more procedures.
Polyps are abnormal tissue growth in mucous growth. They often look like small, and flat bumps. Polyps mostly develop in the colon but it can also develop in ear canals, cervix, vocal cords, and stomach. Polypectomy and hot biopsies are the electrosurgical procedures to remove the polyps. The most common type of Polypectomy is colon polypectomy and uterine polypectomy. It used for the removal of flat polyps and a hot biopsy is performed for the removal of smaller polyps that have a diameter of 5mm or less.
The prostate is a gland that is a part of the male reproductive system. Prostate cancer is diagnosed by removing the small tissue from the prostate which is also known as Prostate biopsies and then examined under the microscope by a pathologist. The treatment for prostate cancer includes surgical interventions such as radical retropubic prostatectomy, radical perineal prostatectomy (TURP). Other treatment options include treatment with drugs, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and hormonal therapy.
Skin cancer is caused by the uncontrolled growth of the skin cells. As the cell multiplies they form a mass called a tumor. The tumor is said to be cancerous if they are malignant and encroach on the neighboring cells. Skin cancer can be diagnosed with the help of a biopsy. The treatment for skin cancer like basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma is by the surgical removal of the lesion. However, malignant melanoma requires a combination of medical treatments which includes surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, photodynamic therapy, biologic therapy, and targeted therapy
Stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) is a specialized type of treatment which includes non-surgical radiation therapy. It is used to treat functional abnormalities and small tumors of the brain. There are two types of stereotactic radiation therapies, which include stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) used for the treatment of brain and spine tumors. When stereotactic radiosurgery is used to treat the body tumors which includes the tumor in the brain and spine then it is called as Stereotactic body radiation (SBRT)
Stomach cancer is also known as gastric cancer. It is due to the uncontrolled growth of cells that accumulates and form a mass in the part of the stomach. The stomach cancer treated with so many procedures which include surgical intervention, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy. The treatment plan is based on the location and the stage of cancer.
Facilities in Hospitals
Oncology department has a special Tumour Board, comprising medical, surgical and radiation oncologists, and diagnostic consultants who provide comprehensive advice on the best course of treatment for patients. The department provides world-class cancer cure.